- Coal is an inflammable organic substance composed mainly of hydrocarbons.
- Coal is available in the form of sedimentary rocks. It is used in the generation of thermal power. It has close association with the industrial development of any country. Since it is a valuable one, it is called as “Black Gold”.
- Based on carbon content, it is classified in to the following types.
- Anthracite: contains 80 to 90% carbon
- Bituminous: contains 60 to 80% carbon
- Lignite: contains 40 to 60% carbon
- Peat: contains less than 40% carbon
- Coal is an important source of energy in India with its varied and innumerable uses. It can be converted into gas, oil, electricity and thermal power. Besides, it forms a basic raw material for the production of chemicals, dyes, fertilizers, paints, synthetic and explosives.
- Indian coal is mostly associated with Gondwana series of rocks and is primarily found in Peninsular India. The states of Jharkhand, odisha, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh alone account for nearly 90% of coal reserves of the country. About 2% of India’s coal is of tertiary type and is found mostly in Assam and Jammu & Kashmir.
- Jharkhand is the largest coal producing state in the country followed by odisha, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. Th e major coal fields of Jharkhand are Bokaro, North Karanpura, South Karanpura, Giridih, Ramgarh, Daltongunj and Rajmahal. Talcher and Ranapur in Odisha, Korba and Chirmiri in Chhattisgarh, Umaria and Singrauli in Madhya pradesh, Tandur, Singareni, Kothagudem and Ramagundam in Andhra Pradesh, Wardha, Ballarpur, Chanda and Kampati in Maharastra and, Raniganj, Asansol and Mejia in West Bengal are the other major coal fields of India.
- Indian lignite (brown coal) deposits occur in the southern and western parts of Peninsular India particularly in Tamil nadu, Pudhucherry and Kerala.
- The Ministry of coal has over all responsibility of determining policies and strategies in respect of exploration and development of coal resource in India. Coal India Limited (CIL), NLC India Limited (NLCIL) and Singareni Collieries Company limited (SCCL) are its public sector under takings.
Petroleum (or) Crude oil
The word petroleum has been derived from two Latin words petro (meaning – Rock) and oleum (meaning oil). Thus petroleum is oil obtained from rocks of the earth. Therefore, it is also called mineral oil. Petroleum is an inflammable liquid that is composed of hydrocarbons which constitute
90-95% of petroleum and the remaining is chiefly organic compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and traces of organ metallic compounds.
Petroleum is used as a source of power and fuel for automobiles, aeroplanes, ships and locomotives. Lubricants, kerosene, vaseline, tar, soap, terylene and wax are its by products. Oil in India is obtained from both from on-shore and off-shore areas.
The production of crude oil fluctuates from year to year from 2011-12 to 2017-18 but only with marginal variations. The change is invariably in negative. In natural gas production also the trend is negative except the last year. The change is high in the first three years and it is low to moderate in the remaining years.
Natural gas usually accompanies the petroleum accumulations. It is naturally occurring hydro carbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly includes varying amounts of other higher alkanes and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen sulphides. It is formed when layers of decomposed plants and animals are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years. It is used as a source of energy for heating, cooking and electricity generation. It is also used as fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals.
India has a very large proportion of tertiary rock and alluvial deposits particularly in the extra peninsular India. These sedimentary rocks, which were once under the shallow seas, hold the possibility of harbouring oil and gas deposits. The highest concentration of natural gas is found in the Bombay high and basseim oil fields. Jagatia and Gogha in Gujarat, Nahorkatiya and Moran in Assam, Neypaltur, Mangmadam in Thanjavur district in Tamil nadu, Baranura and Atharnure ranges in Tripura, Barmer and Charaswala in Rajasthan, Miao Pung and Laptang areas in Arunachal Pradesh, Firozpur district in Punjab, Mausar and Maradpur areas in Jammu and Kashmir and Medinipur in West Bengal are the other areas where natural gas reserves have been discovered.
The Gas Authority of India Ltd [GAIL] is doing pioneer work in the field of natural gas exploration. Discovery of gas made rapid strides in the 1985. Oil strikes at Cauvery offshore, at Nanda in Cambay basin and Tarot in Jaisalmer basin in Rajasthan were major discoveries during 1988-89. Recently, it has been found that Krishna- Godavari delta has reserves of Natural gas.