Various methods for Conservation of Water
It is crucial to conserve water for human beings to survive. How can we conserve water:
- Create awareness among the people, about water scarcity.
- Do not waste water. Use only as much as water needed.
- Close taps between brushing your teeth, bathing and shaving. It hardly required efforts to open and closed taps.
- Collect rain water and use for domestic use. Remember it is clean water.
By using various methods such as reforestation, reusing, recycling, increase water use efficiency, water harvesting and ground water recharging, we could be conserve water.
In the hydrological cycle, there is a continuous interchange of moisture between the earth and atmosphere. In this cycle, the movement of water, has a major influence on rainfall distribution and temperature modification. Through the process of transpiration, plants play an important role in the hydrological cycle. In tropical forests, more than 75% of the annual precipitation is returned to the atmosphere by the plants. Thus, the forest plays a major role in the maintenance of water balance between the soil and atmosphere. Hence, forest plays to conserve the soil and water on the earth.
Forests provide major ecological services like –
- support energy flow and chemical cycling.
- reduce soil erosion.
- absorb and release water.
- purify water.
- purify air.
- influence local and regional climate.
- store atmospheric carbon.
The regional and global climate change was happening due to cutting down of large areas of forest on the earth.
Deforestation is the temporary or permanent removal of large areas of forest for agriculture or other uses.
Reforestation is the process of planting of trees on the deforested area or of increased tree cover from regrowth and planting of trees (plantations). Reforestation increases soil fertility by preventing soil erosion, prevents run-off of eroded soil into aquatic systems and prevents flooding. Thus reforestation plays a major role in conservation of water.
Recycling of water
The wastewater from industrial or domestic sources can be used after proper treatment for irrigation, recharging ground water and even for industrial and municipal use.
Agricultural lands close to cities can be irrigated with municipal wastewater. Household level recycled ‘grey water’ (untreated household water which does not come in contact with toilet waste) can be used for various purposes.
Grey water from shower, bath, washbasins, laundry troughs and washing machines can be put to various uses to reduce pure water requirement. Pure water after used in bath and shower can be used for watering plants.
Reuse of wastewater
Wastewater containing lots of nutrients. These nutrients may help the growth of plants when such water is used in irrigation.
Reuse of wastewater occurs most effectively with on-site or small treatment system. The reuse option in the local context at the community level must be seriously considered.
Water harvesting is collecting rainwater that falls on a house or on and around any building and then putting it to use later on or simply replenishing the ground water by allowing the water to reach underground.
Time has come when we should work on our ancient methods of water management including capturing of water from swollen streams and rivers during monsoon season and storing it in various forms of water bodies.
Recharging of groundwater
The available groundwater is about 13-20 times as much as water available on surface. The groundwater consists of water contained in the soil or aquifers (underground natural water reservoir).
- Flood water may be injected into aquifers through series of deep pits or ditches.
- Small reservoirs and percolation tanks can be dug to hold runoff water recharging
- ground water.
- For recharging ground water, the raining storm water; used water (municipal and domestic); domestic drains can be fed into pits, trenches, depressions..
- De-siltation of canals and tanks should be done regularly.
- Pre-monsoon tillage of fields help to conserve soil moisture.